tv Race in America CSPAN December 22, 2015 8:30am-9:58am EST
i believe, super characteristics of courage, character, and patriotism. >> sunday night, david patricia looks back at a turning point in world history in 1932, the rise of hitler and fdr. then the influence machine, the u.s. chamber of commerce and the corporate capture of american life. >> there's a reason i chose the chamber of commerce as a subject for my book. it is because this single organization really summed up the story of how we got here to this place. >> this holiday weekend watch booktv on c-span2. >> next on c-span2, the u.n. security council needs to address the civil war in syria inform ambassadors on russia's involvement in syria.
later vladimir putin's annual news conference. >> you can see if you want to understand the red/blue politics of you can't look at the state level project a look at the county level because that's where you start seeing those divisions. you can see it right there, presidential election maps. you can see yankee gum popping out, left the coast of veering, the deep south and tidewater. i haven't messed with the college. the red really is republican and the blue religious democrat. this isn't a recent election.
this is the 1916 showdown. republicans for the first century of the history, party founded and almost explicitly yankee gum for centric mike lux but the parties come and go. awakes are gone. federals or so one as well. the current parties have swapped over last 40 years their constituencies and the program. it's just shifted around trying to understand any kind of historical time for them what's happened using parties as a cipher, red versus blue, is an exercise in futility. to lasting differences that really matter in the broader time scheme our regional and cultural and the parties end up shifting their wardrobe, depend on those kind of realities. i'm using, managed to reverse themselves. >> tune in at 8 p.m. tonight on
c-span. >> tonight on q&a, pirate hunters, treasure and the search for legendary pirate ship about the search for the golden fleece which sank off the coast of the dominican republic in the 1680s. the ship's captain was a well-respected english merchant captain before he stole the golden fleece and became a pirate. tune in at 7 p.m. eastern on c-span2. >> in new york city last week the u.n. security council unanimously approved a resolution endorsing a peace process for syria. the resolution calls for cease-fire and talks between the syrian government and syrian opposition. this meeting of united nations security council was chaired by secretary of state john kerry and it is just over two hours.
[inaudible conversations] [inaudible conversations] >> the 7588th meeting of the security council is called to order. the provisional agenda for this meeting is the situation in the middle east. the agenda is adopted. i want to warmly welcome the distinguished secretary-general, the ministers come and the other distinguished representatives, president of the security council chamber today. your presence here underscores the importance of the subject that is under discussion here today. now, in accordance with rule 37 of the council provisional rules
of procedure, i invite a representative of the city in every public to participate in this meeting. it is so decided. the security council will now begin the consideration of item two of the agenda. i give the floor, let me just say to everybody, we have a number of the ministers who have flight schedules to meet and this went on a longer than we thought what i appreciate everybody's patience. we are very, very grateful to you. it's my honor not to give the floor to the secretary-general, his excellency, mr. ban ki-moon. spent your excellency, secretary of state john kerry and president of the security council, distinguished ministers come excellencies, ladies and gentlemen. this year unit conflict began with a peaceful public demands for political change but it soon became defined by regional and international divisions
including industry council for almost five years later we see a country, billions of people scattered across the world and radicalism and sectarianism that challenges regional and global security. in particular, i recognize the statesmanship of u.s. secretary of state john kerry and russian foreign minister sergey lavrov. and also welcome the resolution, the security council will adopt at this meeting. as the first resolution to progress on the political path to resolving the crisis, this marks a very important step on which we must build. i would like to take this opportunity to thank all the best english ministers who have taken such great leadership and
participate in this meeting. excellencies, at the two recent meetings in vienna, the iss achieve me to major requests of the united nations. first, to convene in january former negotiations between the syrian government and opposition representatives focus on a syrian led transition process. second, to determine the requirements and modalities of nationwide cease-fire. the united nations stands ready to undertake these important tasks. we welcome the meeting convened that brought together a broad spectrum of the syrian opposition here as a government and operation delegations are getting ready, the united nations stands ready to relaunch interest here in the talks mediated by my special envoy
mr. de mistura. as set out in the communiqué, the parties must ensure the full and effective participation of women in these talks. this morning at the meeting i urged the issg to apply the necessary pressure on the street in parties to immediately the following confidence-building measures. first, stop the use of indiscriminate weapons against civilians, including barrel bombs which have continued despite the government's pledge to refrain from such assault. second, allow unconditional and unimpeded access for aid convoys. tens of thousands of people in basij areas have been forced to live on grass and weeds. this is outrageous. third, total tax on medical and educational facilities, and lift
all restrictions on medical and surgical supplies from humanitarian convoys. fourth, release all detainees. reports indicate that prisoners face torture. mr. president, distinguished counsel members, nearly two years have passed since the geneva to conference. the people of syria suffered enough. i call for you to show vision and leadership in overcoming your differences. your duty is to seize it. thank you, mr. president. >> thank you, mr. secretary-general, and i think everybody or joint in thanking you for your leadership and for all the help of the united nations. the council is now ready to proceed to a vote on the draft resolution before it. members of the council have
before them document as 2015 2015/996. the text of a draft resolution so goodbye united states of america. i will put this draft resolution to a vote now. will those in favor of the draft resolution contained in document 2015/996 please raise their hand. the result of the voting is clear. the draft resolution has received 15 votes in favor and, therefore, the draft resolution has been adopted unanimously as resolution 2254 of 2015. i will now make a statement in my capacity as secretary of state of the united states. mr. secretary-general, special
envoy de mistura, distinguished colleagues, i want to begin by thanking the other p4 members who joined together to help fashion this resolution and who spent time this morning working with our colleagues in order to bring us here this afternoon, plus our non-p4 member, germany, for whom we are very grateful for their participation also. i want to thank all the members of the council for coming together at this late hour. and i thank you in particular, secretary-general ban and special envoy de mistura, for your leadership and your commitment. i also want to thank foreign minister lavrov for his collaboration and his efforts over the course of both vienna conferences to produce the two vienna communiques that are integrated into this resolution here today. by approving resolution 2254
today, this council is sending a clear message to all concerned that the time is now to stop the killing in syria and lay the groundwork for a government that the long-suffering people of that battered land can support. after four and a half years of war, this is the first time we have been able to come together at the united nations in the security council to embrace a road forward. during that time, one syrian in 20 has been killed or wounded, one in five is a refugee, one in two has been displaced. the average life expectancy in syria has dropped by 20 years. we need to reverse the course, and that is the council's goal here this afternoon, to put an end to the indiscriminate bombing, the acts of terror, the torture, and the bloodshed.
and our shared task is to find a way to make that happen. in support of this objective, president obama has set for my country three interrelated goals. the first is to support our friends and to ensure that the instability created by the civil war in syria does not spread further beyond its borders. and that is why we're providing a record amount of humanitarian assistance, and it's why we're doing more to help syria's neighbors, to strengthen their capacity to safeguard their territory and to defend against external threats. second, we are determined, with our coalitional partners, to degrade and defeat the terrorist organization known as daesh. in the past half year, the coalition and its partners have worked with iraqi forces in liberating tikrit, freeing sinjar, removing terrorist commanders from the battlefield, cutting off terrorist supply lines, hitting their oil facilities, and depriving daesh of more and more of the
territory that it once controlled. now we are intensifying the pressure, helping our iraqi partners retake most of ramadi to squeeze supply routes into mosul. and we are pushing ahead into northern syria, assisting our partners along the iraqi-syrian border and on the recruiting and propaganda efforts. further, as evidenced by the finance ministerial that was held right here in this very chamber yesterday, we are multiplying our efforts to cut daesh off from the revenue sources that support its depravity, its criminality. but the truth is that nothing would do more to bolster the fight against the terrorists than a broadly supported diplomatic process that gives the syrian people a real choice not a choice between assad or daesh, but between war and peace, between the violent extremes and a newly empowered
political center. that is why we have joined with so many of you in support of an urgent diplomatic initiative. again and again, countries not just around this dais today, but countless meetings in various parts of the world have reaffirmed the notion that there has to be a political settlement. well, this is the test. this is why we've joined here in a broader, more action-oriented effort than ever before attempted regarding syria, to isolate the terrorists and to put syria on the road to a political transition, envisioned by the geneva communique, now embraced by the international community and the united nations security council resolution. as the council's action today reflects, we have made important progress in recent weeks, and progress that should give us all fresh grounds for encouragement. last month in vienna, the united states and other members of the
international syria support group agreed on a series of steps to stop the bleeding in syria, to advance a political transition, to isolate the terrorists, and to help the syrian people to be able to begin to rebuild their country. last week in riyadh, with the support of his majesty king salman and his government, a broad cross-section of syrian opposition representatives came together to form a high committee for negotiation. under the resolution approved today, the purpose of those negotiations between the responsible opposition and the government is to facilitate a transition within syria to a credible, inclusive, nonsectarian governance within six months. the process would lead to the drafting of a new constitution and arrangements for internationally supervised election within 18 months. i might add geneva never had those dates. it is the vienna process and the
vienna communique that has produced a six-month and 18-month time horizon, and it is the vienna process that also has embraced the ceasefire concept as well as embraced a set of principles and values about the shape that a new syria might be able to take as directed by syrians for syrians. it's our hope that a nationwide ceasefire can go into effect, excluding only daesh and al-nusrah and any other group that we might decide at some time to designate. so i would close by saying we're under no illusions about the obstacles that exist. there obviously remain sharp differences within the international community, especially about the future of president assad. we have emphasized from the beginning that for this to work,
the process has to be led and shaped and decided and implemented by the men and women of syria. it cannot be imposed from the outside and we are not seeking to do so. but we've also seen in recent weeks, in vienna, in paris, and in other capitals, and then today here in new york, an unprecedented degree of unity on the need to negotiate this political transition to defeat daesh, and then, indeed, to end the war. the resolution that we just approved is a milestone because it sets out specific concepts with specific timeframes. accordingly, we need to work hard together to help these political talks to go forward, to prepare for a ceasefire, and to encourage all the parties in syria to participate in good faith. in closing, let me just underscore the urgency of our task. like many of you, i've met with
refugees in and out of refugee camps. i've met with survivors, as you have, met with caregivers, as you have, met with many of the people who have been on the front lines of this conflict. i've talked to women who have struggled to hold their families together despite constant danger, bitter cold, shortages of food, and great danger. i've heard the blood-chilling stories of doctors and relief workers who have been dealing with humanitarian trauma on a daily basis, month after month, year after year, now into the fifth year. i am aware, as everybody in this chamber is, of the atrocities that have been committed and are being committed even as we sit here this afternoon, and being committed too often against innocent civilians. looking ahead, we know that daesh can never be allowed to gain control in syria.
so we have a global imperative here to deal with a terrorist entity, but also to end the civil war and to bring legitimacy back to the governance of syria. president assad, in our judgment, and not everybody shares this, but the majority of the people in the issg believe that president assad has lost the ability, the credibility, to be able to unite the country and to provide the moral credibility to be able to govern it into the future. so i'd just say, not as a matter of ideology, not as a matter of choice, but purely as a matter of reality, as a matter of fact given the situation on the ground, that if the war is to end, it is imperative that the syrian people agree on an alternative in terms of their governance. that logic is compelling and it provides a unifying principle for most people in our efforts
going forward. we have a lot of distance to travel, some would say miles to go. but the truth is that in the past two months, we have started from a standstill, from a nonexistent process, to have three separate meetings of the issg and now a united nations security council embrace of a process. we have agreed on a plan of action, and the council's vote today is an important boost on the road to a political settlement. it is a particularly important step because it reaffirms this body's endorsement of the geneva communique about the transitional governing body with full executive authority, and it also endorses the progress and the statements that we made in vienna to set a timeline, a timeline for transition, a timeline for election, and standards for that election, the highest standards under the
supervision of the united nations for a free, fair, transparent, and accountable election. it also brings fundamental values and principles that can guide the shaping of syria by syrians for syrians. so let us proceed with confidence from here and a determination to end this war, eliminate the terrorist threat, and enable the people of syria to return safely to their homes. i now resume my function as president of the council and i give the floor to his excellency mr. sergey lavrov, minister of foreign affairs of the russian federation. >> translator: thank you president, college. first and foremost other like to thank john kerry for his initiative to conduct today in new york the third meeting of the issg. this is been a time to meet in this room. the meeting of the issg
underscored the commitment of all its participants to the vienna process. the resolution just adopted. approved the 14 november 2015 agreement that spoke of a way to reimplement the geneva communiqué from 30 june 2012. here it is reset for the first of foremost that all three document or a single platform for solving the bloody series in crisis. secondly, that the vienna format is the only one which will bring together all influential foreign players to ensure a context for sustainable and fair settlement through talks between the government of the city in arab republic and the whole span of the opposition. the resolution provides an international law way to collective work with such negotiations under the srs g.
here it is underscored that only syrian led inclusive dialogue can put an end to the untold suffering of the syrian people. here there's also affirmation of the fundamental principles of political settlement, namely that syria should remain unified, secular, pluralist just and clearly ethnic. not only come and only the syrian people himself can define its future. is is a clear response to attempts to impose a solution from the outside on syrians on any issues including those regarding the president. this approach is enshrined in the geneva to mitigate as well as in the document of the issg at in today's resolution. for the more we're all united on the front of the terrorists of all stripes have no place in the talks. just the same as those who would like a military solution to the
crisis. the unanimous adoption today on the council has screwed a broad and counterterrorism front on the basis of the u.n. charter, on the basis of all of those who are pushing back against terror on the ground, including the syrian army, the turkish army, the armed militias in that syria, parts of the syrian opposition as well as the russian air force is in response to the legitimate request of the syrian arab republicam an important role here should be played as we heard to the russian and u.s. proposals, proposed resolution aimed at strengthening control are over set of the financing of isil and such terrorist groups, cutting off the channels for their financing first and foremost through cutting out the illegal trade in oil. combating terrorism should be consistent and selfless. in syria or anywhere else. it is inadmissible to divide
terrorism amongst good and bad ones. the resolution underscores thursday to provide humanitarian assistance. they should be presented on the basis for strict compliance with the guiding principles of the united nations, enshrined in resolutions executed health resolution including the principle of the breed of host country. it is important that today on the security council once again there was repetition of the need to uphold the sovereignty of the syrian arab republic. the adopted resolution enshrined the security council oversight over the results achieved in the application of the vienna agreement with international support. the secretary-general and his special representatives or envoys, staffan de mistura will conduct the negotiations with the syrian opposition. those in moscow, cairo, damascus, and other places. we are counting on allen's
recommendations from the secretariasecretariat to the sey council regarding this are tested to be taken in all areas agreed upon in vienna. we're convinced our colleagues will heeded these instructions impartially and not engaging in any attempts to influence anyone's side and be guided exclusively by the task of assisting finding mutually acceptable agreement between the government and opposition as required by today's resolution. as these recommendations become right, we shall stand ready as a co-chair of the issg with the united states as well and the united nations to convene another meeting to define on the basis of consensus for the steps to be taken in fostering a solution to the syrian crisis. we call upon all colleagues doing the work to come to not engage in rhetoric to prevent
inciting inter- ethnic hatred and be guided by the primary needed to combat terrorism, find a political settlement. this is the approach to which there is no alternative if we indeed put not our geopolitical interests for but the interest of the syrian people and the syrian state. thank you. >> thank you very much, mr. law prof. again, thank you for your leadership regarding this. i now have the honor of recognizing his excellency, ma deputy prime minister prime minister for foreign affairs of jordan. [inaudible conversations] in the name of god, the merciful, the compassionate. mr. chairman, allow me to express my deep thanks and gratitude to the secretary of state of the united states of america, whose country now
presides over the council for this month. and express my thanks and gratitude to him for convening this important ministerial conference that comes in pursuit of the international constructive work in order to put an end to the crisis in syria and to put an end to the suffering of the syrian people. your excellency, members of the security council, your excellency this secretary-general, united nations, ladies and gentlemen. our meeting today is yet another milestone in the international response to the situation in syria. the regional as well as international parties. during the past few months, to intensify the diplomatic efforts in order to reach a common understanding on the ways and means to realize a political settlement for the tragic crisis
in syria that has been going on for five years, and his dangerous repercussions are on the region and the international community, especially its humanitarian aspect. that's relative to the integral displacement and the assignment of millions of syrians and the second aspect, which is a result of the expansion of daesh, terroristic groups, and other related terrorists entities and people. ..
>> translator: and for his forthcoming efforts that we emphasize this committee should continue working in order to insure a political process in syria based on the document of geneva. the declarations -- [inaudible] that were held in vienna and new york today, and the resolution that has been adopted by the council today which is a historical resolution that builds the way for the implementation of the political solution that we hope will put an end to the political crisis, a crisis that syria has been facing. i wish to express our appreciation to the efforts of the sister kingdom of saudi
arabia which hosted the conference of syrian opposition at riyadh in order to launch the political negotiations which we hope will lead to the realization of this this political solution and to our opposition to all those countries that have tirelessly worked in this sector. i also wish to mention that we in the kingdom of jordan have played the role we were asked to do by starting a process between the members of the isz in order to reach a common understanding of the groups and -- [inaudible] we have presented the result of our work to the issg, and we have explained the consensus of some countries on some recordist groups and some groups upon
which there have not been agreement in order to, so that negotiations could continue about their designation in the future. we have said in the kingdom of jordan since the beginning of the crisis in syria that the only solution to this crisis is the comprehensive political solution. our position under or the leadership of his majesty, king abdullah ii, son of hussein and his emphasis that the comprehensive political solution must be realized. this has been our position, that has remained our conviction. we see no way to restoring normalcy in syria and to rehabilitate the social fabric in syria and to maintain its territorial integrity and its political infence except through the -- independence except through the political solution.
we don't see any way of facing, defeating terrorism, extremism and daesh guns and to pull them from syria and other places cannot be realized except through this comprehensive political solution upon which all the syrians would agree and whom we should support them and help them in order to realize -- [inaudible] in order to save syria and to restore international and regional peace and security. the adoption by the security council of this resolution today will give the necessary momentum to realize the political solution in syria, a solution that is based on the concepts and the documents of the geneva i as comprehensive political context. and the declarations of the isg and to start on a political path
in order to realize the political solution adopted by the resolution and to determine the time horizons and time frames necessary. and the mechanisms to review its implementation and the fulfillment of all the obligations and to review -- for a comprehensive ceasefire. the terrorist daesh groups, al-nusra and others and which will lead to defeat them. the position regarding terrorism and extremism, we lead the international efforts to defeat this terrorism, in order to defeat these extremist thoughts, a terrorism that spoils the image of our great region, islam, and its message of tolerance and its moderate cause. and all those who try to commit crimes in the name of this this
religion are not part of this religion at all. all parties, all the syrian parties have to rise to the levels of the sacrifices -- the syrian people and to seek to realize the comprehensive political solution which could restore security, stability and harmony to syria and which will lead to the uprooting of terrorism and its implications all over the world and lay the basis for the reconstruction of syria that lives in peace with itself, a syria of plurality and enables the refugees to return to their homeland. the international community in general and this council in particular must not allow any obstacles to be placed before the comprehensive political solution or to -- and to take the effective missions capable of defeating any attempt to
delay the realization, because the failure would have grave consequences. we have all seen conclusive evidence on the threats resulting from the absence of a political vision and a political solution. your excellency, today's momentum should serve to intensify international community's efforts to face the crisis of the syrian reffy gees. -- refugees. one of the most difficult and most painful humanitarian crisis, especially the neighboring states that are hosting refugees, especially in my country, jordan. the number of the syrians in the kingdom of jordan alone with 1,400,000 spread all over the regions of the kingdom knowing that 9% alone of these refugees leave incomes.
jordan, with its limited resources, have become the second largest host for refugees in the world and the second largest country -- the second country hosting the greatest number of syria refugees with all its attendant consequences and pressures on the major sectors like health, education, security, labor, market and the infrastructure which is costing the jordanian treasury lots of expenses that are beyond the region, beyond the abilities of the kingdom. your excellency, jordan and its kind people have opened their houses to the refugees from syria, especially our brothers from syria. we have shared with them our limited resources. we, on behalf of entire humanity, we have carried out our obligation in hosting them and providing them with all that
we can. we are proud of our ability to host them, a hosting that is in -- [inaudible] with the leadership. however, the world must share this burden with us, because we are performing this humanitarian duty on behalf of the entire humanity. and to help us, to shoulder this burden and to work with us in accordance with the response plan which was drawn by government of jordan in order to alleviate the suffering of those who are living in the camps or hosted. we look forward to the convening of the london conference next year, early next year, and we hold international community to effectively participate in that conference, your excellency. we are today before a real chance that should not be missed in order to take confident steps toward the realization of
political solution that will satisfy all the syrians, which will restore the security and stability to syria. we should realize the ambitions of its people to move into a new reality, a reality that they themselves draw that will maintain the unity of their country and the territorial integrity and will enable us to defeat recordism in combination and -- terrorism in combination and partnership with them. from this time and place, i call on all the syrians and the entire community to avail ourselves of this opportunity before it's too late. your excellency, this intervention of mine could be the last before this august council during this tenure of jordan as a member of the security council, because our membership, our nonpermanent membership will end in few days. allow me to avail of the support
you need to express to the entire membership of the council our deep gratitude for the cooperation that we have received during our nonpermanent membership which started at the beginning of 2014. i wish to express our deep gratitude to the members of the united nations for the confidence that they give jordan under the leadership of his majesty, king abdullah ii, by letting us as a nonpermanent member of the council. jordan, which believes in the charter of the united nations, which is committed to its principles and objectives, we are all proud of the quality achievements that have been realized and the initiative through all sectors, notably the youth sector. i wish to refer to the various initiatives regarding syria and -- [inaudible] and other important issues which we work with the members of this
council in order to realize and to achieve and solve during our membership. this achievement in this important organ have all been realized through cooperation with the membership in terms of national peace and security. sir, we thank you for the floor be. >> thank you very much, minister judeh, and on behalf of everybody i say thank you to you for your service. the peacekeeping you do as well as extraordinary work with refugees, we're all very grateful. it's my privilege now to give the floor to his excellency, the minister for foreign affairs and international development for france. [speaking french] >> translator: president, secretary general, colleagues, in syria and for syria emergency has struck. for five years now more than
250,000 dead, 4 million refugees, 13.5 mis-- million misplaced persons. there is an urgent need to solve this crisis which quite far beyond syria is a threat to international peace and security. in this context, the resolution we just adopted unanimously is a glimmer of hope and what i might call a road map resolution. we know, as we're part of this, that a yet-tenuous political process was initiated in vienna on the basis of the geneva communique where the principles of the communique p con to be obligatory -- continue to be obligatory to all. this has brought together an unseen totality of international partners. the international community must
provide a credible framework for negotiations to be led between a delegation from the regime and a delegation to the opposition, mediated by the special envoy of the secretary general of the united nations. they will seek to establish a transition authority and facilitate a ceasefire. our security council today adopts the first results of in this process. of this process. allow me to emphasize quickly a few points. my first, the matter of the opposition. we heard some ask, what opposition? several meetings in various formats have been held on this topic. but allow me to underscore that the recent conference upon the request of the vienna group is a success which should be expressed because the syrian
opposition has provided a response by coming together. all of the various branches of the political and armed opposition came together and expressed their commitment to a political solution, a free, secular and democratic syria, one which has space for all of the components of syrian society. here we have an interlocutor, one which is guided by the geneva communique. the special envoy, the united nations with the high negotiation committee, which is the result of -- which is the speaker of the opposition is holding talks. at stage we know that the syrian regime has not yet demonstrated any desire to enter any serious negotiations on the basis of the terms established. now secondly, the political transition. there are plans for syrian talks, but without our support and guarantee it had been
difficult to define a political framework which is guided by the geneva communique. this framework should be underpinned by many principles. first, an effective transition. one which which means the handover to the transition authority of full executive power. in particular, control over the military and security apparatus as planned for by the geneva communique. this is a step which should be taken quickly. secondly, there's a need for institutional reform in particular in the area of security. this will allow or provide syria with a framework which respects the diversity of the syrian people. finally, there must be safeguards regarding the exit of mr. bashar al assad which is necessary for not just moral reasons, but also ones as we've stressed of effectiveness. how could somebody bring together a whole people when he
has massacred so many? and here whatever our ideas might be we simply can't hide an undeniable political reality that is as long as mr. bashar al assad's government continues lasting and veritable reconciliation between populations and the syrian state would seem unattainable. finally, allow me to share a few thoughts on the ceasefire. the ceasefire must be national, viable, verifiable more it to be lasting. we -- for it to be lasting. we think at least three conditions should be met. first, we think the ceasefire should accompany the transition rather than precede it, and that only this transition will provide the opposition with necessary security conditions. finally, we think there's a need
to to prepare the ceasefire with immediate humanitarian measures to alleviate the suffering of people and to add credibility to the selection process. compliance with national humanitarian law is a seen quo nonbe, unhampered access for humanitarian assistance. to create a foundation for the ceasefire. and finally, after such violence monitoring of the ceasefire will be quite difficult. it will require creative solutions on the ground but also on the political front. it'll need a mechanism through which the issg members who are most concerned and permanent members of security council shall hold parties accountable for compliance with their obligations. colleagues, by way of conclusion, in the beginning i spoke about a glimmer of hope and a road map resolution.
all of us around the table must contribute in good faith to create conditions conducive to a political transition which is credible in syria. we must all bring our influence to bear to to bring syrian parties to uphold the guidelines we have set forth. in particular as in the near future the inter-syrian talks will begin under the aegis of the united nations. france, for its part, will remain active and vigilant. we shall be wary to insure that all military forces can combat daesh and eradicate terrorism. we shall be vigilant to insure parties and, first and foremost, the regime engage in talks and uphold obligations, that the international community effectively commit to a credible transition is and a lasting ceasefire. only through these clear objectives and newfound unity, the international community
can -- as we hope -- triumph over terrorism and halt the syrian tragedy. thank you. >> thank you very much, laurent. that's much appreciated. i give the floor now to his excellency, miner is for foreign affair -- minister for foreign affairs of china. [speaking chinese] >> translator: mr. president, china welcomes the unanimous adoption of the resolution by the security council. the resolution embodies the broad consensus of the international community, reflects the keen aspiration of the syrian people and lends fresh impetus to the issue. we must follow through on it with a view to translating consensus into action and expectation into reality. the protracted conflict in the past five years have brought syria, a country with time-honored civilization, to ruins. large numbers of syrians have
been displaced and unable to return to their home. what is worse, it has become a hotbed where radical ideas breed as well as a pray ground of -- playground of terrorists. as such the international community should work towards the political settlement of the issue with a stronger sense of urgency and responsibility. for five years the international effort to seek a political settlement has been relentless. this on and off political process has its ups and downs. we need to build on successful experience, learn the lessons and press ahead with the political properties firmly -- process firmly and steadily so that it can be put on an irreversible path. first, we must remain committed to the goal of political settlement. what has happened tells us that the more the bloodshed, the worse the tension. there is simply no military solution to the syrian crisis. political negotiation is the only viable option.
all willing parties must stop fighting immediately, those organizations and individuals that reject ceasefire would find themselves on the opposition side of the syrian people, and the whole world and will pay a costly price. the security council has already sent out a clear and strong message. relevant countries, especially regional country, should leverage their respective influence to engage the parties amenable to ceasefire. second, we must remain committed to the principles that the future of syria must be independently decided by the syrian people. no one cares more about syria's future or knows the country better than syrian people, and syria belongs to the syrians. the political process should be syrian-led and syrian-owned. this is consistent with the purposes and principles of the u.n. charter and the ones governing international relations. i want to stress that specific steps in the political transition must be independently worked out between the syrian government and the oppositional representatives through
negotiation. the process for drafting a new constitution must be independently decided by all parties and groups of syria and the future leader of syria must be independently chosen by the syrian people. other countries could help in a constructive way. the international community need to force per an enabling environment, and all parties should create a favorable condition for that. third, we must remain committed to having u.n. serve as the main channel for mediation. u.n. involvement would bring more legitimacy and authority to the process. it is the largest common demom be nateer acceptable to all parties. by security councilman kate, the u.n. will formulate ceasefire plan and promote peace talks between the government and opposition. we'll look to theup to work on both -- the u.n. to work on both fronts steadily as mandated and coordinating international counterterrorism efforts and other areas. the international community should render cooperation and
support and assist and complement the mediation by secretary-general ban ki-moon and special envoy in a constructive way. issg should build on its previous efforts and continue to support the u.n.. mr. president, since the outbreak of the syrian crisis, china has all along held an objective and a just position and participated in the settlement of the issue. china does not have or pursue selfish interests on the syrian issue. no matter how we vote, for or against, the goal is always to avoid war and you turmoil, givee syrian people stability, give peace a chance and to make political settlement possible. what we are trying to do is to uphold fundamental and long-term interests of the people in syria and the region, safeguard the purposes and principles of the u.n. charter and the basic norms
governing international relations and to protect the legitimate interests of developing countries, especially small and medium-sized countries. the changing die dynamics in the syrian situation affect various parties, the neighborhood and the whole world. its increasingly profound effects have triggered severe global challenges such as terrorism and a refugee crisis which is something we need to think long and hard about. we all all relevant parties to rise above the narrow geopolitical rivalries and zero sum approach for the sake of greater stability and the global good, work together to advance political transition, jointly fight terrorism, ease the humanitarian crisis and take a holistic approach to the refugee problem. mr. president, instability causes suffering, and the conflict leaves no winner. we must join hands to help parties to the conflict bury the
hatchet and build peace so that syrian people will be able to lead a life free of fear and war. thank you. >> minister, thank you very much. and thank you, particularly, i know you ralphed all the way to be here for a day, and you're about to get a plane to rush back, and we're very appreciative for your effort. it makes an important statement. thank you very much. now my privilege to recognize and give the floor to his excellency, mr. phillip hammond, the secretary of state for foreign and commonwealth affairs for the united kingdom. >> thank you, mr. president. let me begin by thanking the secretary-general and his special envoy, stephane, for all they are doing to bring the syrian parties together. let me also thank you, secretary kerry, for the characteristic drive and energy that you have brought over recent months to this process in establishing the international syria support
group. this has given new momentum towards the resumption of syrian-led talks and has brought us to this important occasion today. the resolution that we've adopted unanimously today is a further step in this work. sadly, it is far too soon for any of us to predict an end to the syria conflict. but i hope that we will look back on today as a significant step in that direction. frankly, on syria this council has too seldom found the unity it needed to live up to its responsibility for delivering peace and security. despite some useful but only partially-implemented resolutions. this has to change. no country, no person who has been involved in syria's destruction in the last four years can take any satisfaction from what has happened. on the syrias doier -- dossier,
we have to concede we have all failed, we have all been losers. but by far the greatest losers are the people of syria themselves. we have to do better, and we have to do better fast if there is not to be still more suffering. the participants in the issg came together behind a single aim; to support the syrian parties to find an end to the conflict and tackle the terrorists currently operating in their country. we all share the sense of urgency which comes from witnessing the continuing deterioration of the humanitarian and security situation in syria. syrian population, over 250,000 of whom have been killed and millions more forced from their homes, have borne the brunt of this conflict. this is not a humanitarian disaster, it is a humanitarian catastrophe.
the ongoing indiscriminate use of weapons on civilians, especially artillery and aerial bombardments including barrel bombs continues to cause terror, destruction and civilian deaths. and while daesh poses a real threat to syrians as well as to the wider region, it is assad who bears the respondent percent majority -- the responsibility for the majority of deaths in syria. mr. president, i commend saudi arabia for convening a broad cross-section of representatives of the syrian opposition in riyadh earlier this month. the agreement reached at that meeting in riyadh and formation of a high negotiating committee showed the determination of the syrian opposition groups to come together whatever their differences to play a crucial, constructive role in talks. they reaffirmed their commitment to the implementation of the
geneva communique working towards a managed transition away from assad and a pluralistic future for syria. i welcome, too, jordan's efforts to build consensus on identifying terrorist groups operating in syria. whilst it is for in this council ultimately to decide to designate any such groups, the issg is in a privileged position to provide information, analysis and advice to the council to assist it. we believe that it will take time to mature that view, and we're able to test which groups are willing to commit to a political process and a ceasefire. mr. president, i'd like to turn to the content of the resolution and highlight the areas that will be critical to progress of talks. first, all of us -- both in this council and in the broader international community -- want to see a national ceasefire established.
to have a realistic chance of success, a ceasefire must be closely aligned to progress on political transition and talks between the syrian parties and the u.n. auspices. we've seen previous attempts to end the conflict in syria undermined by a lack of determination by the parties to contribute productively to talks. it is critical that the voices of all syrians are heard in this process, including syrian women and members of syrian minorities. second, there needs to be confidence amongst the parties that the political process will deliver real results without which neither the talks, nor the ceasefire will be successful. this will not be easy. five years of conflict has eroded confidence. therefore, all the parties must undertake confidence-building measures, some of which are identified in the resolution we've passed today.
we welcome the work being undertaken be i the u.n -- by the u.n. to in this end and towards modalities for a ceasefire as mandated by this resolution. all parties have a duty to take care in their military actions not to cause the death of civilians whether by deliberate or by reckless targeting. the indiscriminate use of weapons, especially the use of artillery and aerial bombardments including barrel bombs, must stop. medical facilities and schools have increasingly become a target for aerial bombardment, something that is abhorrent to all of us and must stop. all parties must adhere to their duties under international human rights and international humanitarian law. they must allow humanitarian agencies rapid, safe and unhindered access throughout
syria by most direct routes. there are 13.5 million syrians in need of humanitarian assistance. these people need to see a change to their lives if they are to have confidence in this political process and to feel its benefits. the u.k. is the second largest bilateral donor to the humanitarian effort in response to the syrian conflict after the united states. but let us all do more on this front. this resolution also repeats the commitment to political transition in syria following the principles of the geneva communique many full and leading to free -- in pull and leading to free and fair elections under a new syrian constitution within 18 months. this will involve the establishment of a transitional governing body with full executive powers and representative of all is syrians -- of all syrians which
provides the framework for talks and an end to the conflict. this process necessarily involves the departure of bashar al assad. not only for moral reasons, because of the destruction he's unleashed upon his own people, but also for practical reasons because it will never be possible to bring peace and unity to syria as long as he remains in office. but we must and will protect the institutions that are necessary for the future governance of syria, and that will be possible with a representative transitional governing body and with the support of the issg. mr. president, whilst we must seek to end the conflict in syria, especially the violence that is directed against civilians, we must also join in confronting the threat posed by daesh and other extremist groups in the country. an end to the civil war in syria
is critical to tackling daesh in the long term. we are all clear that terrorist groups must not and will not benefit from the ceasefire we are promoting. a key consideration for the syrians in the establishment of the transitional governing body will be the fight against terrorism. many this fight -- in this fight they will have the full support of the issg and of the global coalition. following the appalling attacks in sinai, beirut, ankara and paris, this council unanimously decided to adopt resolution 2249 which calls on all countries to use all necessary means to combat daesh. the u.k. responded to this resolution by extending the airstrikes we were already carrying out in iraq against daesh into syria.
in this regard, it is vital that all countries that claim to be fighting daesh do what they say rather than directing the bulk of their attacks against non-extremist opposition groups. there is clear evidence over the last weeks that the weakening of such groups has created opportunities for the expansion of daesh in certain areas, the very opposite of the stated objective. mr. president, as well as focusing on the immediate threats, we must also prepare for the future in syria. we must reaffirm our commitment to assist in the postconflict reconstruction of the country. next february, in close partnership with germany, norway, kuwait and the united nations, the u.k. will cohost a conference in london on humanitarian support for syria including a focus on civilian
protection as well as planning for stabilization. of course, mr. president, that conference will seek to to raise the funding that is mess to meet the united -- that is necessary to meet the united nations' appeal to support those displaced by the humanitarian crisis. but the u.k. is also committed to support post-conflict reconstruction efforts in syria and has already committed to provide at least $1.5 billion to this work the long term in addition to the $1.64 billion we have so far given in humanitarian aid. and i hope in february we will see others committing to to both the immediate challenge and to the long-term challenge of reconstruction. in conclusion, mr. president, the conflict in syria is now almost five years old. in that time more than 250,000 syrians have been killed.
we all have a duty to prevent further slaughter. despite the important end aha we've taken -- that we've taken with today's resolution, despite the progress we've made in vienna, despite the importance that was made at the meeting in riyadh the week before last, there is still a very long way to go. and to have a chance of success, the united nations will need the clear and continued support of the international syria support group, and i know that i can say it will have the support of that group. but above all, we need syrian leaders of all persuasions to take responsibility for the future of their country and to take the tough decisions needed to bring about a lasting political settlement and an end to the conflict. because we can help, but only the syrians themselves can bring
an end to syrian suffering. thank you, mr. president. >> thank you very much, mr. secretary. let me thank you personally, secretary hammond, for your personal engagement and collaboration on this. it's really been key together with -- [inaudible] and company. so we're very appreciative for the help. i now give the floor to his excellency, mr. ignacio banas, the vice miner is for foreign affairs of spain. [speaking spanish] >> translator: thank you very much, mr. president. the adoption unanimously of resolution 2254 opens a window of opportunity to embrace dialogue as a way of dealing with the crisis in syria which has been one of the most painful conflicts that we've experienced in decades. the main victims of this crisis are, first and foremost, the syrians themselves. today's resolution comes too late for more than one-quarter
of a million people who have lost their lives over past be five years -- past five years. we should never forget that in syria fundamental norms of international humanitarian law have been violated and continue to be violated. the war in syria at the same time a challenge due to the implications it has for the entire region. it has been the trigger for the'slation of the terrorism -- escalation for the terrorism of daesh that has become the main threat to the international community on a global scale. as cosponsor of this resolution, spain is keenly aware of the attacks in paris, the attacks in beirut, the blowing up of a commercial russian aircraft in the sinai and the attacks in ankara. the ceasefire in syria would allow us to, enable us to focus on a political solution of the conflict while we continue to fight against terrorism. today this is our top priority.
in upcoming months, spain will continue to actively participate in the anti-daesh coalition in various domains, including the training of iraqi security forces. now, the this resolution furthermore asserts the central role of the united nations and specifically the security council that cannot continue to sit around twiddling its thumbs in the face of a conflict of in this scale. the vienna process has been essential to bring together around the negotiating table countries with very different visions, sometimes hostile visions on the conflict in syria. however, the united nations should play the role of arbiter for a long-term solution as is reelected in the responsibilities allocated by resolution 2254 to the secretary general, to the team of special envoy and to the security council itself. mr. president, now without the
unity of international community, we would not have achieved this, and the success or failure of in this process will depend, however, first and foremost, on the syrians themselves. the challenge is enormous. after so many years of war, it'll be very difficult to close the wounds. the temptation to embrace a military solution will be there at every stage in this process. spain has always supported a dialogue with any preconditions in syria knowing that the future will inevitably go through transition that leads to a new political system on the basis of the geneva communique. we fully support the special envoy of the secretary-general that has all the necessary qualities to successfully conduct in this exercise. the setting up of confidence-building measures in the short run will be a clear sign of hope.
on this point we call on the immediate ceasing of indiscriminate attacks against the civilian population and in particular the use of barrel bombs by government of syria. in conclusion, mr. president, yesterday we marked five years since the protest of mohamed baa si si in tunis which led to the arab spring. also yesterday in this room we committed ourself with concrete measures to cut the umbilical cord of the financing of daesh. soon i trust that this security council will take a position with identical firmness and unity in favor of guaranteeing humanitarian assistance to all syrians by the most immediate channels without any hindrance or obstacles. to achievement and the adoption of this resolution, spain will be working with jordan and new zealand. together we will submit for
adoption next week a resolution, and i'm sure we will have the full sport of all -- full support of all members of the security council to this resolution that will be essential for all the parties. in these days we have had positive news on libya from morocco. progress is being made step by step in yemen. in syria we have a long way ahead full of obstacles, but at least we are taking the most important step, an indispensable step so that armed clashes cede the way to diplomacy. spain as a member of the security council will spare no effort to translate the spirit of unity and consensus in an effective commitment to peace, security and stability in syria and in the middle east as a whole. thank you very much, mr. president. >> thank you very much, mr. vice minister. it's my privilege now to yield the floor to his excellency, mr. manuel domingo augusto,
secretary of state for relations of angola. >> thank you. we thank the united states' secretary of state mr. john kerry for presiding over in this important meeting. we also welcome the adoption of this landmark resolution. which delineates the process which will bring about the end of the syrian crisis. it is a step forward by pledging to support the ceasefire in syria. we encourage all parties to abide by its provisions in order to successfully lead to the transition, insuring that the continuity of governmental institutions as well as -- territorial integrity of syria. we ask all parties in syria as well as the international community to maintain the focus
and commitment to principles stipulated in this resolution and in geneva communique. mr. president, conflict in syria became one of the most appalling situations con fronting the international -- confronting the international community. with the violation of political and humanitarian and economic -- the security council has addressed this on a number of occasions. with a feeling of despair prevailing due to the grim situation faced by syrian people. -- during the debates on the syrian situation often acknowledge disappointment with lack of political will by the major stakeholders to search for effective, real and global solutions to end this war which has claimed the lives of so many innocent people while displacing millions. now as we reach the end of this
year, we look forward with a sense of renewed hope due to the apparent determination by the international community to defeat terrorists and the positive momentum for the political resolution to the conflict in syria. mr. president, the recent upsurge of brutal terrorist attacks namely in paris, beirut, iraq, ankara and elsewhere and the refugee crisis from syria seem to have played the role of a game changer by making the international community understand the implications of allowing conflicts to degenerate to such extent as has been the crisis in syria. people suffering under deplorable conditions for such
prolonged periods of time while international organizations and world powers are unable or unwilling to protect them are easy prey for recruitment by radical and extremist elements. exclusion, poverty are breeding grounds for this violence to spread the ideology of hatred and intolerance as is the case with isil or daesh and other terrorist organizations operating in the region. it is reassuring that the international community has begun to turn the tide by taking positive steps toward the politicalization of syria that needs the legitimate -- of the syrian people and will to fully enable them to democratically determine their own future while
repudiating extremist elements such as isil, daesh and al-nusra among others. mr. president, we welcome the outcomes of the recent serious talks in vienna and the specific steps outlined with regard to the political process in syria. request for u.n. secretary-general special envoy to convene a meeting with the syrian government and opposition by january 2016. in this regard, we've versioned the importance of identifying members in the entire spectrum of opposition force and that both sides start discussing without further delay the end of hostilities, establishment of a sustainable ceasefire as the first step towards a meaningful political process enabling a new future for syria. it is also imperative that
the -- to the conflict begin implementing confidence-building measures on the ground in order to obtain the deadlines for the political process agreed by the international syria support group on a joint national unity government on the drafting of a new constitution and on the holding of elections based on that constitution. mr. president, one of the most pressing issues at the moment is to put an end to the violence. as the refugee crisis demonstrates, the humanitarian course needs to be reversed by creating conditions for a ceasefire, permitting the safe return of displaced people and refugees to their homes. in the meantime, however, we shouldn't forget the quality of obligation to continue providing humanitarian aid until life can be restored back to normal in syria. in conclusion, mr. president, we would like to reiterate our support to the principles of
geneva communique and the constructive measures adopted at the i have yen ma meetings regard -- at the vienna meetings regarding the way forward in the resolution of the is syrian conflict. we also welcome the broad-based coalition to fight daesh and other terrorist groups. it became evident that inaction was no longer suitable given the dangerous proliferation of extremism throughout the world and its impact on the daily lives of people everywhere. the fight on terrorism is crucial. terrorists can't evade anywhere in the world. the more the international community is divided or states selfishly pursue their international efforts, the more terrorists prey on vulnerable and alienated communities in conflict-ridden areas, thereby
increasing -- [inaudible] i thank you, mr. president. >> i thank you, mr. augusto. thank you very much for your statement. i now give the floor to his excellency, the vice minister for foreign affairs of lithuania. >> thank you. mr. president, excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, our meeting today and the adoption of resolution 2254 mark an important step towards settlement of the most brutal conflict of this century. the peace process started in i have general that is long overdue. as a human tragedy continues to take place inside syria and keeps spilling over its borderses. with a particularly heavy burden on its neighbors; jordan, lebanon and turkey are bearing the brunt of it. unprecedented numbers of
refugees are reaching europe while human traffickers is and smugglers are profiting from their flight. to in this very day, the civilian poplation continues to suffer the atrocities committed not only by terrorist groups such as daesh, but also by president assad's regime. being part of the problem, president assad cannot be seen as part of the solution to this devastating crisis. all syrians should feel safe and have the right to be secure in a future peaceful and democratic syria. those who committed crimes against humanity, gross human rights violations and mass atrocities should be brought to justice. there can be no room for impunity. an immediate -- of hostilities in syria leading to an end of this bloody conflict is a matter of urgency and a moral obligation. the very first and the most
urgent step is to agree on a long-term, sustainable ceasefire. it is imperative to fully open unhindered humanitarian access to all in need including those in besieged and hard-to-reach areas. mr. president, at this juncture the political momentum is fragile and still reversible. a real breakthrough requires long-term, genuine engagement, courage and readiness to compromise by all parties to the conflict. after years of this war, there will be no winners. but there is a lot to be gained by immediately stopping the bloodshed, safeguarding the integrity and sovereignty of syrian state and starting building a future for its people. we welcome the meeting by the broad range of representatives recently held in riyadh aimed at achieving a common stance in the peace process. we see it as a beginning of the
consolidation of moderate opposition and a sign of readiness to seek common solutions. in order to achieve peace and reconciliation, syrians will need our massive long-term and sustained assistance in all aspects, political, security, humanitarian, reconciliation, reconstruction and development of the country. we must continue pushing the peace process forward, seeking genuine and sustainable resolution of this conflict by putting aside differing views and interests. a strong leadership and mediation of the united nations remains essential. in this respect, we express our appreciation to secretary-general ban ki-moon and his special representative, stephane, for their effort effo. a well-thought consistent and comprehensive strategy for political transition including reconciliation and voluntary and safe return of refugees and
idps must be thoroughly prepared and responsibly implemented in accordance with the 2012 geneva communique. mr. president, even with the political transition soundly on track, daesh will remain one of the biggest threats to peace and stability in the region and beyond. along with the military means in the fight against daesh, there will be a long and difficult battle against its poisonous ideology. this battle must be fought by the muslims themselves who are the primary and most vulnerable target of daesh's murderous ideology. in order to avoid the risks of fragmentation or the creation of new frozen conflict zones in syria and to advance peace process and reconciliation, it is critically important for the local populations to take the lead and ownership. women's voices in particular
must be heard loud and clear at all stages of negotiations leading to peace and post-conflict reconstruction. the strength of syria lies in its cultural, ethnic and religious diversity. all pieces of this complex fabric; muslim, kurds, alawites, christians, jews and others must play a pull and integral part in the -- a full and integral part in the future of syria. including inclusion as governance of the country. even if the political transition is to be facilitated by a third party, the final decisions on their destiny must be taken by the syrian people themselves. only the syrian people can decide in what state they want to live, and